Anuj Kamra

cat /proc/interrupts :-

CPU0 CPU1
0: 1547 0 IO-APIC-edge timer
1: 22804 0 IO-APIC-edge i8042
4: 2 0 IO-APIC-edge
6: 5 0 IO-APIC-edge floppy
7: 0 0 IO-APIC-edge parport0
8: 1 0 IO-APIC-edge rtc0
9: 0 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi acpi
14: 0 0 IO-APIC-edge ata_piix
15: 0 0 IO-APIC-edge ata_piix
16: 392374 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi uhci_hcd:usb2, uhci_hcd:usb5
17: 40791 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi Intel ICH5
18: 996418 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi ata_piix, uhci_hcd:usb4
19: 0 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi uhci_hcd:usb3
21: 5986791 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi eth4
23: 2 0 IO-APIC-fasteoi ehci_hcd:usb1
NMI: 0 0 Non-maskable interrupts
LOC: 81081864 78138584 Local timer interrupts
RES: 100601 219906 Rescheduling interrupts
CAL: 62 254 Function call interrupts
TLB: 43476 54555 TLB shootdowns
SPU: 0 0 Spurious interrupts
ERR: 0
MIS: 0

cat /proc/cpuinfo :-

processor : 0
vendor_id : GenuineIntel
cpu family : 15
model : 4
model name : Intel(R) Pentium(R) D CPU 2.66GHz
stepping : 7
cpu MHz : 2661.540
cache size : 1024 KB
physical id : 0
siblings : 2
core id : 0
cpu cores : 2
apicid : 0
initial apicid : 0
fdiv_bug : no
hlt_bug : no
f00f_bug : no
coma_bug : no
fpu : yes
fpu_exception : yes
cpuid level : 5
wp : yes
flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe lm constant_tsc pebs bts pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl tm2 cid cx16 xtpr lahf_lm
bogomips : 5323.08
clflush size : 64
power management:

processor : 1
vendor_id : GenuineIntel
cpu family : 15
model : 4
model name : Intel(R) Pentium(R) D CPU 2.66GHz
stepping : 7
cpu MHz : 2661.540
cache size : 1024 KB
physical id : 0
siblings : 2
core id : 1
cpu cores : 2
apicid : 1
initial apicid : 1
fdiv_bug : no
hlt_bug : no
f00f_bug : no
coma_bug : no
fpu : yes
fpu_exception : yes
cpuid level : 5
wp : yes
flags : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush dts acpi mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht tm pbe lm constant_tsc pebs bts pni dtes64 monitor ds_cpl tm2 cid cx16 xtpr lahf_lm
bogomips : 5323.85
clflush size : 64
power management:

cat /proc/ioports :-

0000-001f : dma1
0020-0021 : pic1
0040-0043 : timer0
0050-0053 : timer1
0060-0060 : keyboard
0064-0064 : keyboard
0070-0071 : rtc0
0080-008f : dma page reg
00a0-00a1 : pic2
00c0-00df : dma2
00f0-00ff : fpu
0170-0177 : 0000:00:1f.1
0170-0177 : ata_piix
01f0-01f7 : 0000:00:1f.1
01f0-01f7 : ata_piix
0290-0297 : pnp 00:07
0376-0376 : 0000:00:1f.1
0376-0376 : ata_piix
0378-037a : parport0
037b-037f : parport0
03c0-03df : vga+
03f2-03f5 : floppy
03f6-03f6 : 0000:00:1f.1
03f6-03f6 : ata_piix
03f7-03f7 : floppy DIR
03f8-03ff : serial
0400-041f : pnp 00:08
0480-04bf : 0000:00:1f.0
0480-04bf : pnp 00:08
04d0-04d1 : pnp 00:08
0778-077a : parport0
0800-087f : 0000:00:1f.0
0800-087f : pnp 00:08
0800-0803 : ACPI PM1a_EVT_BLK
0804-0805 : ACPI PM1a_CNT_BLK
0808-080b : ACPI PM_TMR
0810-0815 : ACPI CPU throttle
0828-082f : ACPI GPE0_BLK
0830-0833 : iTCO_wdt
0860-087f : iTCO_wdt
0cf8-0cff : PCI conf1
a000-a00f : 0000:00:1f.2
a000-a00f : ata_piix
a400-a403 : 0000:00:1f.2
a400-a403 : ata_piix
a800-a807 : 0000:00:1f.2
a800-a807 : ata_piix
b000-b003 : 0000:00:1f.2
b000-b003 : ata_piix
b400-b407 : 0000:00:1f.2
b400-b407 : ata_piix
b800-b83f : 0000:00:1f.5
b800-b83f : Intel ICH5
c000-c0ff : 0000:00:1f.5
c000-c0ff : Intel ICH5
c400-c41f : 0000:00:1d.0
c400-c41f : uhci_hcd
c800-c81f : 0000:00:1d.1
c800-c81f : uhci_hcd
d000-d01f : 0000:00:1d.2
d000-d01f : uhci_hcd
d400-d41f : 0000:00:1d.3
d400-d41f : uhci_hcd
d800-d807 : 0000:00:02.0
e000-efff : PCI Bus 0000:01
e400-e4ff : 0000:01:0d.0
e400-e4ff : r8169
e800-e8ff : 0000:01:0a.0
e800-e8ff : 8139too
fc00-fc0f : 0000:00:1f.1
fc00-fc0f : ata_piix

cat /proc/modules :-
iptable_filter 10752 0 – Live 0xf7f52000
iptable_nat 13700 0 – Live 0xf7f08000
nf_nat 25876 1 iptable_nat, Live 0xf7ed9000
nf_conntrack_ipv4 21388 3 iptable_nat,nf_nat, Live 0xf7ea6000
nf_conntrack 72008 3 iptable_nat,nf_nat,nf_conntrack_ipv4, Live 0xf7f61000
nf_defrag_ipv4 9984 1 nf_conntrack_ipv4, Live 0xf7e8b000
ip_tables 19472 2 iptable_filter,iptable_nat, Live 0xf7dc3000
x_tables 23044 2 iptable_nat,ip_tables, Live 0xf7d86000
binfmt_misc 16776 1 – Live 0xf7d32000
bridge 56340 0 – Live 0xf7deb000
stp 10500 1 bridge, Live 0xf7d28000
bnep 20224 2 – Live 0xf7c9a000
video 25360 0 – Live 0xf7eea000
output 11008 1 video, Live 0xf7e92000
input_polldev 11912 0 – Live 0xf7da3000
reiserfs 236288 1 – Live 0xf8221000
lp 17156 0 – Live 0xf7c32000
snd_intel8x0 37532 3 – Live 0xf7fe9000
snd_ac97_codec 112292 1 snd_intel8x0, Live 0xf7fb9000
ac97_bus 9856 1 snd_ac97_codec, Live 0xf7f8b000
snd_pcm_oss 46336 0 – Live 0xf7f75000
snd_mixer_oss 22656 1 snd_pcm_oss, Live 0xf7f59000
snd_pcm 82948 3 snd_intel8x0,snd_ac97_codec,snd_pcm_oss, Live 0xf7f35000
snd_seq_dummy 10756 0 – Live 0xf7f11000
snd_seq_oss 37760 0 – Live 0xf7efc000
ppdev 15620 0 – Live 0xf7ee4000
snd_seq_midi 14336 0 – Live 0xf7ed3000
snd_rawmidi 29696 1 snd_seq_midi, Live 0xf7ebf000
snd_seq_midi_event 15104 2 snd_seq_oss,snd_seq_midi, Live 0xf7ead000
snd_seq 56880 6 snd_seq_dummy,snd_seq_oss,snd_seq_midi,snd_seq_midi_event, Live 0xf7e96000
snd_timer 29704 2 snd_pcm,snd_seq, Live 0xf7ddf000
snd_seq_device 14988 5 snd_seq_dummy,snd_seq_oss,snd_seq_midi,snd_rawmidi,snd_seq, Live 0xf7dd6000
pcspkr 10496 0 – Live 0xf7d92000
iTCO_wdt 19108 0 – Live 0xf7d9c000
iTCO_vendor_support 11652 1 iTCO_wdt, Live 0xf7d38000
snd 62628 16 snd_intel8x0,snd_ac97_codec,snd_pcm_oss,snd_mixer_oss,snd_pcm,snd_seq_oss,snd_rawmidi,snd_seq,snd_timer,snd_seq_device, Live 0xf7db1000
soundcore 15200 1 snd, Live 0xf7d2c000
snd_page_alloc 16904 2 snd_intel8x0,snd_pcm, Live 0xf7cb1000
shpchp 40212 0 – Live 0xf7cbf000
parport_pc 40100 1 – Live 0xf7d0c000
parport 42220 3 lp,ppdev,parport_pc, Live 0xf7cdc000
intel_agp 34108 1 – Live 0xf7c82000
agpgart 42696 2 intel_agp, Live 0xf7ccf000
8139too 32128 0 – Live 0xf7c56000
r8169 40836 0 – Live 0xf7dca000
8139cp 27776 0 – Live 0xf7da8000
mii 13312 3 8139too,r8169,8139cp, Live 0xf7d96000
usbhid 42336 0 – Live 0xf7d65000
floppy 64324 0 – Live 0xf7d40000
raid10 30336 0 – Live 0xf7d1b000
raid456 134928 0 – Live 0xf7ce9000
async_xor 11392 1 raid456, Live 0xf7cba000
async_memcpy 10112 1 raid456, Live 0xf7cac000
async_tx 15184 3 raid456,async_xor,async_memcpy, Live 0xf7ca1000
xor 24072 2 raid456,async_xor, Live 0xf7c92000
raid1 29952 0 – Live 0xf7c73000
raid0 15360 0 – Live 0xf7c3e000
multipath 15232 0 – Live 0xf7c8c000
linear 13312 0 – Live 0xf7c7c000
fbcon 46112 0 – Live 0xf7c65000
tileblit 10752 1 fbcon, Live 0xf7c51000
font 16384 1 fbcon, Live 0xf7c45000
bitblit 13824 1 fbcon, Live 0xf7c38000
softcursor 9984 1 bitblit, Live 0xf7c2d000

cat /proc/partitions :-
major minor #blocks name

8 0 156290904 sda
8 1 979933 sda1
8 2 1 sda2
8 3 63504945 sda3
8 5 19535008 sda5
8 6 19535008 sda6
8 7 3903763 sda7
8 8 48829536 sda8
8 16 156290904 sdb
8 17 8393931 sdb1
8 18 8393962 sdb2
8 19 1 sdb3
8 20 125861242 sdb4
8 21 2104483 sdb5
8 22 11534638 sdb6

cat /proc/mounts :-
rootfs / rootfs rw 0 0
none /sys sysfs rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec 0 0
none /proc proc rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec 0 0
udev /dev tmpfs rw,mode=755 0 0
/dev/disk/by-uuid/f5a4a4ac-82d7-479d-8e3d-3c5a7f26974b / ext3 rw,relatime,errors=remount-ro,data=ordered 0 0
tmpfs /lib/init/rw tmpfs rw,nosuid,mode=755 0 0
fusectl /sys/fs/fuse/connections fusectl rw 0 0
varrun /var/run tmpfs rw,nosuid,mode=755 0 0
varlock /var/lock tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec 0 0
tmpfs /lib/modules/2.6.28-11-generic/volatile tmpfs rw,mode=755 0 0
tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev 0 0
devpts /dev/pts devpts rw,nosuid,noexec,gid=5,mode=620 0 0
varrun /var/run tmpfs rw,nosuid,mode=755 0 0
varlock /var/lock tmpfs rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec 0 0
/dev/sda1 /boot ext3 rw,relatime,errors=continue,data=ordered 0 0
/dev/sda6 /usr ext3 rw,relatime,errors=continue,data=ordered 0 0
/dev/sda8 /var ext3 rw,relatime,errors=continue,data=ordered 0 0
/dev/sdb4 /oldhome reiserfs rw 0 0
securityfs /sys/kernel/security securityfs rw 0 0
binfmt_misc /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec 0 0
gvfs-fuse-daemon /home/isteam/.gvfs fuse.gvfs-fuse-daemon rw,nosuid,nodev,user_id=1000,group_id=1000 0 0

Subversion is a free/open-source version control system, usually used for keep track of changes to source code. Subversion manages files and directories over time and increments revisions made to the file system. A tree of files is placed into a central repository. This repository is much like an ordinary file server, except that it remembers every change ever made to your files and directories. This allows you to recover older versions of your files and examine the history of how the data has changed.

Subversion allows access to its repository via the network, which allows it to be used by people on different computers at the same time. This ability for various people to modify and manage the same set of data from their respective locations fosters collaboration on projects. This can allow progress on a project to occur more quickly by creating work that is versioned. By using revision history, contributors can easily revert or undo changes in an error or incorrect change is made to the data repository.

Subversion also saves space, because it stores deltas from one version to the next. Users can make a change to a versioned file, it needs only enough extra space to store the changes rather than a complete second copy of individual files. Also, unlike most CVS systems, delta storage on Subversion also applies to binary files as well as text files.

Steps to Installation :-

1. sudo apt-get install subversion or yum install subversion.
2. sudo apt-get install mod_dav_svn or yum install mod_dav_svn
3. mkdir /svn
4. mkdir /svn/repos
We need to give these folders the proper permissions
5. chown -R apache.apache /svn
Then we need to tell subversion to make our first repository.
6. svnadmin create /svn/repos/myproject
First, I need to setup a config file for svnserve.
7. vi /svn/repos/conf/svnserve.conf
Then, look for variations of the following code and edit it as necessary. By default any anonymous user can access the code so to disable that you must include anon-access = none, just commenting the value out will not prevent anonymous access.
anon-access = none
password-db = passwdfile
realm = My SVN Repository
auth-access = write
The password-db is just a path to a file containing usernames and passwords. You’ll create this file especially for SVN. I create each file inside of the repository conf directory. So, save your changes and then we’ll create said user file. Read the rest of this entry »

ਿਘਓੁ ਖਾਧਾ ਸੀ ਘੁਲਣੇ ਲਈ ਪਰ ਇਸ਼ਕ ਲੜਾਓਣ ਲੱਗਾ,
ਤੀਜੇ ਿਪੰਡ ਦੇ ਿਦਨ ਦੇ ਿਤੰਨ-2 ਗੇੜੇ ਲਾਓਣ ਲੱਗਾ,
ਨਗਾਂ ਵਾਲਾ ਚਮਕਾਰਾ ਜਦ ਪੈਂਦਾ ਏ ਬਾਰੀ ਚੋ,
ਇਸ਼ਕ ਦੇ ­­ਦੋਖੀ ਲੱਗੀ ਦਾ ਢੋਲ ਵਜਾ ਹੀ ਿਦੰਦੇ ਨੇ,
ਕੋਕੇ ਦੇ ਚਮਕਾਰੇ ਤੇ ਲਲਕਾਰੇ ਗਭਰੂ ਦੇ,
ੀਪੰਡ ਿਵਚ ਕੋਈ ਨਾ ਕੋਈ ਪੰਗਾ ਪਾ ਹੀ ਿਦੰਦੇ ਨੇ,

ਯਾਰਾਂ ਦੇ ਿਵਚ ਬੈਠੇ ਨੂੰੰ ਸੈਣਤ ਮਾਰ ਕੇ ਲੰਘ ਗਈ,
ਕੱਲ ਿਮਲੁੰਗੀ ਲਾਿਰਆ ਦੀ ਸੁਲੀ ਤੇ ਟੰਗ ਗਈ,
ਜਦ ਤਕ ਆਏ ਨਾ, ਿਨਗਾ ਘੜੀ ਦੇ ਓੁਤੇ ਰਿਹੰਦੀ ਏ,

Read the rest of this entry »

ਲੜਨ ਲੱਗਿਆਂ ਅੱਖਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਰੋਕਿਆ ਨਾ,
ਹੁਣ ਹੰਝੂ ਵਹਾਉਣ ਤੋਂ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਰੋਕਾਂ।
ਉਜੜੇ ਘਰਾਂ ਦੇ ਵਿਚ ਪਰਿੰਦਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ,
ਆਪਣੇ ਘਰ ਬਣਾਉਣ ਤੋਂ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਰੋਕਾਂ।
ਲੁੱਟੇ ਦਿਲ ਨੂੰ ਨਵੀਂ ਉਮੀਦ ਵਾਲੇ,
ਦੇਬੀ ਦੀਵੇ ਜਗਾਉਣ ਤੋਂ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਰੋਕਾਂ।
ਰੋਕ ਸਕਿਆ ਨਾ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਮਹਿਬੂਬ ਆਪਣੀ,
ਉਹਦੀ ਯਾਦ ਨੂੰ ਆਉਣ ਤੋਂ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਰੋਕਾਂ।
Read the rest of this entry »

CTRL + B Moves the cursor backward one character.
CTRL + C Cancels the currently running command.
CTRL + D Logs out of the current session.
CTRL + F Moves the cursor forward one character.
CTRL + H Erase one character. Similar to pressing backspace.
CTRL + P Paste previous line and/or lines.
CTRL + S Stops all output on screen (XOFF).
CTRL + Q Turns all output stopped on screen back on (XON).
CTRL + U Erases the complete line.
CTRL + W Deletes the last word typed in. For example, if you typed ‘mv file1 file2′ this shortcut would delete file2.
CTRL + Z Cancels current operation, moves back a directory and/or takes the current operation and moves it to the background.

    IPCop is a Linux-based firewall that turns an x86 system into a firewall appliance. You could call IPCop a Linux firewall distribution, because it has a self-contained kernel and operating system. In other words, you do not have to install IPCop on top of a standard Linux distribution such as Red Hat. You install IPCop like you would an operating system, and once it is installed it completely monopolizes the machine for use as a firewall appliance.

After installation, IPCop is controlled by a Web-based GUI and does not require any knowledge of Linux. It leverages the strengths of open source—it’s free and continually updated and patched—and it takes advantage of the power of Linux firewall and security software such as IPTables, Snort IDS, and FreeS/WAN VPN and simplifies their usage and configuration into its Web-based interface.

The following are some of the features that IPCop includes:

  • Network Address Translation (NAT)

  • DHCP server

  • VPN server

  • Transparent Web proxy

  • Secure Shell (SSH) access

  • Port forwarding

  • DMZ setup

  • Detailed, well-organized logs

  • Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

  • Traffic statistics and graphics

CAUTION: When you install IPCop on a PC, the hard drive will be formatted and all data on it will be lost.


Network Interfaces

IPCop defines up to four network interfaces, RED, GREEN, BLUE and ORANGE.

RED Network Interface

This network is the Internet or other untrusted network. IPCop’s primary purpose is to protect the GREEN, BLUE and ORANGE networks and their computers from traffic originating on the RED network. Your current connection method and hardware are used to connect to this network.

GREEN Network Interface

This interface only connects to the computer(s) that IPCop is protecting. It is presumed to be local. Traffic to it is routed though an Ethernet NIC on the IPCop computer firewall.

BLUE Network Interface

This optional network allows you to place wireless devices on a separate network. Computers on this network cannot get to the GREEN network except tightly controlled “pinholes”, or via a VPN. Traffic to this network is routed through an Ethernet NIC.

ORANGE Network Interface

This optional network allows you to place publicly accessible servers on a separate network. Computers on this network cannot get to the GREEN or BLUE networks, except through tightly controlled “DMZ pinholes”. Traffic to this network is routed through an Ethernet NIC.

Network Image

Network Configuration Types

Since the RED interface can connect either by modem or by Ethernet, there are eight Network Configuration Types:

  • GREEN (RED is modem/ISDN)

  • GREEN + RED (RED is Ethernet)

  • GREEN + ORANGE + RED (RED is Ethernet)

  • GREEN + ORANGE (RED is modem/ISDN)

  • GREEN + BLUE + RED (RED is Ethernet)

  • GREEN + BLUE (RED is modem/ISDN)

  • GREEN + BLUE + ORANGE + RED (RED is Ethernet)

  • GREEN + BLUE + ORANGE (RED is modem/ISDN)

Perform the installation
Once you have your IPCop installation CD made, pop it in the CD drive of the target system and restart. The system should automatically boot into the CD (if it doesn’t, then you probably need to change the boot order in the system’s BIOS so that the CD is the first device that the system tries to boot from). If you have successfully booted from the IPCop CD, you’ll see the welcome screen.

a

At the welcome screen, press [Enter] to start the installation. After the installer loads, the first thing you will be prompted to do will be to select a language.

language

The next selection you will have to make involves the installation media. Choose CDROM .You may get a message that tells you to insert the CD into the computer. It should already be there, but if not then insert it and click OK.

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